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Dust – FAQ

A. Frequently Asked Ducting Questions

  1.  money is important, but not going to drive my ducting decision. After retiring I fell in love with woodworking, have just finished building a large shop, and am slowly adding one machine after another. It seems that every time I add another machine, I have to move at least one or more of the existing machines. What ducting would you recommend for someone who wants minimum upset and trouble to do the install and later move things around?

    I am also in a fairly similar place, except I have kind of been there and done that with all the different types of ducting. The simple answer to your question is with time instead of money being a driving force in my world, I would install high end laser welded duct with the built in seals and snap lock pipe. Airflow is great because the seams are so smooth you can hardly tell where the pieces were joined. I also am an admitted tool junkie who keeps adding tools, so has to constantly reconfigure my ducting and shop layout. The airtight seals and clamps allow quick installation and even faster reconfiguration. To reconfigure just release the clamps, make the changes and then reclose the clamps. Plus, with my now in retirement and thinking about a downsized new home with a separate shop, this system would allow for easy disassembly and reassembly. If finances preclude that expensive duct then I would go for all PVC. I think the spiral pipe and HVAC ducting solutions work well, but they are a bloody pain to install and even more difficult to later change.

    Back as a hobbyist when PVC pipe was cheap I built a nice ducting system from the agricultural PVC that is readily available in this area. It worked really well, was not a constant blood letting to install, was fairly easy and cheap to change, and once I learned the trick of putting a 2” wide strip of aluminum tape inside and outside the pipe to drain the static, static electricity stopped being an annoyance. I am still a big fan of PVC ducting because of its ease of installation and making changes, plus it moves the air with less resistance. At the same time using PVC poses a serious fire danger for those who use a tiny blower and large PVC pipe. That combination creates piles of dust in the ducting just waiting for a spark for the duct airflow to quickly blow into a fire that the PVC will make worse. Shops subject to commercial fire marshal inspections are not allowed to use plastic duct. The big issue with PVC is cost. Since I originally wrote these pages the cost for petroleum based products like PVC has gone through the roof. The last couple of ducting systems I helped friends build ended up using steel HVAC and spiral pipe solutions because they cost far less than PVC today.

    The two main firms that make the laser welded steel duct are Lindab and Nordfab, but this duct is resold by many other vendors. By the time you add additional markups for wholesaler, distributor, and retailer this laser welded duct gets ridiculously expensive. Worse, most of the firms that resell this duct strongly dislike getting involved in hobbyist and small woodworking shops. Most are no where near ready to pay the high cost for this type of duct. Worse, it takes far longer sales and air engineering time to help a small shop owner as it does to help a large shop owner. They invariably have to share why we need bigger duct to move enough air and few small shop owners take kindly to being told they are going to have to remake most of their tool hoods and ports for the result to be effective.

    If you want this kind of duct, it is best to get it directly from one of the manufacturer’s main distributors. Only two large distributors have come forward willing to work directly with hobbyists and small shop owners, 877-BUY-DUCT and (866) 455-2130. These two are with the largest manufacturers (Lindab and Nordfab) and offer top quality all USA made smooth seam laser welded steel ducting with clamp connections. They keep all the wyes, bends, dampers, reducing cones, branch pieces, fittings, etc. in stock. Both have excellent reputations and enjoy working with hobbyists and small shop owners, plus have worked out fast affordable shipping for our orders.

    If you’re interested in Nordfab Laser Welded Clamp Together Ducting my friends at are happy to work with hobbyist and small shop owners interested in a clamp together duct system. They provide detailed CAD/PDF drawings, parts list, and engineering recommendations for the low cost of $13.00 per drop. to view more information about the ACS ducting design service. If you purchase the ductwork the drawings are free. Everything is made to order and ships within 5 working days. They maintain plants on both the east and west coasts for faster less expensive shipping.

    After installing both HVAC and with spiral pipe ducting, I picked up a bit of knowledge, some unfortunately from making dumb mistakes. I put my HVAC ducting in the attic above my shop roof where local building codes require metal. I got a big surprise when my heavy blower collapsed the light HVAC pipe. It turns out our box stores sell two gauges of their snap lock pipe and I bought the really light stuff but should have used the heavier 26-gauge metal or instead used real steel spiral pipe made for dust collection where its ribs make it much stronger. I also learned many vendors offer spiral pipe ducting solutions and quite a few local vendors make their own pipe and fittings saving lots on shipping. You want to do your homework carefully before buying. Hidden costs like for shipping can really add up. Shipping ducting is tough because it is so bulky it gets shipped with heavier items. All it takes is a heavy box to slide into or get stacked on top of our ducting and fittings to ruin them. That is why you only want to buy from a firm that either will replace anything that does not arrive intact or buy locally. Even buying locally poses some challenges. The same $6 elbow I could buy at the local box store cost $25 from my dust collection ducting firm, $12 from my local HVAC firm, and with shipping $18 mail order. I had multiple sales people tell me their elbows were only for dust collection. That’s silly, flipping an HVAC elbow end for end makes it identical to a duct collection elbow. The only time the dust collection elbows are more important is if you do things right and buy the more expensive large radius elbows. That is not the case on reducers and wyes. For those you need a good roller crimper to change the end genders, or spend the larger amounts needed to buy actual dust collection fittings.

    If you have an established shop with little need to relocate tools I favor the use of spiral pipe with real large radius dust collection fittings. You can buy and install spiral pipe yourself, but most choose to have a local firm do the installation. Although these work well, the inside of the spiral pipe is pretty rough and adds considerably to the overall resistance of the ducting. Additionally spiral pipe ducting is a pain in the tail to change. Personally, I put a spiral pipe system under the floor of one of my shops. Even with a 4’ tall crawlway under the floor installation was a pain. By the time I sold that shop two years later the floor looked like a prairie dog village with patched holes everywhere. My tools kept moving because I kept adding more tools. Anyhow to avoid that whole mess, I strongly recommend overhead ducting. If you want a spiral pipe system and keep the costs down by doing your own install because shipping is so high, you should check out your local suppliers. I have also heard many are pleased with the spiral pipe from:

6780 Sierra Court, Unit “M”
Dublin, CA 94568
Phone: (925) 803-8444
Fax : (925) 803-8448
920 N. Lombard Road
Lombard, IL 60148
Phone: (630) 620-9866
Fax : (630) 620-9878
1230 S. Manufacturers Row
Trenton, TN 38382
Phone: (731)855-0040
Fax : (731)855-0460
  1. These firms are known for offering good quality spiral duct, elbows, fittings, and other sheet metal products for about 1/4 the cost of some of the “dust collection ducting” vendors. (Thanks Amer from Amer’s Woodworking)

    I also heard offers good quality metal ducting. They sell directly to individuals, make their stuff from the better heavier 20 gauge, and have OK pricing. (Thanks Grant Erwin!)

  2. Does a 4″ connection at the machine negate the benefit of the 6″ duct going right to that machine? Yes, it kills the dust collection performance. At typical airspeeds and pressures for dust collection, air is virtually incompressible. Air can speedup some to get around a short obstruction, but just like a water valve, closing down the opening greatly restricts flow. The standard 4″ connections on our larger hobbyist machines kill the CFM below what we need to collect the fine dust. We pretty much have to replace all the 4″ ports on our larger machines if we are going to collect the fine dust at the source.

    The other part of your question is what is the impact on airflow when using a 4″ drop attached to a 6″ line? My engineer friends at Dwyer Instruments that build most of the air measurement meters say roughly 10 diameters of pipe will both stabilize the airflow and set that airflow to about the same duct speed as your main. Most air engineers that are just interested in getting sawdust build systems targeted to get an airspeed of 4000 FPM in the main. That 4000 FPM when pulled through more than about 40” of 4” diameter duct will end up with a total air volume of 350 CFM. That is plenty for good chip collection at most small shop stationary machines, but far short of the 1000 CFM I recommend for good fine dust collection. The bad news is that roughly 350 CFM ends up with our main only having an total airflow of about 1782 FPM. That is way short of the minimum 2800 FPM needed to keep a horizontal main clear. The result is the main ends up building up first the larger chips then finer dust. It will continue to build up this dust until the duct is sufficiently restricted that the airflow is again fast enough to keep the remaining area clear.

    So, putting that 4” diameter down drop on 6” diameter is bad news. These ducting piles are a serious fire hazard. When airflow is restored from open more area these piles go slamming down the ducting. This slamming ruins blower impellers, blower motors, knocks the ducting joints loose and destroys filters. Worse, when these piles break loose they create one of the few times that small shops end up with a potentially explosive dust to air ratio. The slightest spark say from a nail hitting a steel blower housing is enough to cause a serious problem. Plus, it is unpleasant to listen to this dust rumble around in the ducts.

    We can easily do the math to understand why that 4” diameter is just too small to be used with a 6” duct unless we open up more airflow downstream. From the area formula A=r*r*Pi we know the area of our circles more formally known as the cross sectional area of a piece of duct. For 4” this is 2*2*Pi =4*Pi and for 6” ducting this is 3*3*Pi=9*Pi. The difference is the 6” duct has 125% more area and the 4” duct only has 4/9ths the area of a 6”. Not only will this cause piles in the horizontal runs, if we have any vertical runs there is a good chance that we will develop plugging because we need at least 3800 FPM going up to keep the heavier stuff moving. That 1782 FPM is less than half of the 3800 FPM minimum we need to keep the dust from plugging in the vertical runs.

    I know of four solutions and there may be more, but I only recommend the first:

.                        Use all 6” duct right to your tools. For tools that have two ports like a table saw, use a 5” duct to the larger cabinet port and a 4” to the smaller blade guard port. Cutting into my precious tools to put on big enough ports was one of the toughest things I had to do, but the result made a huge difference. Some tools have internal ducting that requires use of two 4” ports. This will work but not nearly as well as a 5” and a 4”. It is all a matter of trying to keep the areas as close to the down drop pipe as possible.

  1. Go with overhead ducting so you don’t have to pull dust up at the end of the run by the blower. This works only if the difference between main and down drop is minimal. That more than double 4” to 6” area is just not going to work.
  2. Stay with all 6″ and just use a tapered wye on the end with the extra pipe going to a dust hood to help with upper collection. People do this all the time and it sort of works. I tried it and measured the airflow. That 6” to 4” taper cost me about a third of my total airflow.
  3. Build at the end of your main as far from the dust collection system as possible a weighted door that opens a little whenever the pressure in the line becomes too large. This will keep up the main airflow ample to ensure no plugging but you kill the total airflow needed for fine dust collection and often don’t end up even with good “chip collection”. I had to do this with my airfoil impeller as it will stall if I let the pressure get too high.
    1. You commented at one point about the possibility of using melamine coated particle board to build solid ductwork, rather than using pipes. But I could not find anything to advise the pros and cons of this approach.

      Is there any problem with static buildup, as there is in PVC? Assuming that I’m careful with building smooth and tight joints, would melamine provide as high flow efficiency as PVC or metal? Would melamine be quieter? I’d like to keep the noise down to a reasonable level, since it’s in the basement, right under the kitchen and dining room. Are there any other concerns that you can think of, with using melamine?

      Would a combination of melamine and flat sheet metal be even better? Just like your blower design; sandwiching sheet metal in a groove between two plates of melamine?

      I’m just in the preliminary stages of planning a cyclone dust collector based on your airfoil blower. I already got a price quote from Paul, and I see that the Delta motors are still available via eBay. I’m planning on having a weighted duct opening at the end of the duct to eliminate the stall condition.

      Melamine works fine with the normal concerns for rectangular ducting building up piles in the corners, plus some concern about flammability. You really do have to ensure ample airflow in the ducts and use long smooth radius turns with this to keep them clear always. Melamine does not normally present a static problem. And, it does help to dampen the noise considerably. With a basement shop, make sure your blower is not attached to a ceiling or wall and that you go from the blower to the melamine with flex hose to dampen blower noise. If you do have to attach the blower to the ceiling or wall, use good shock mounts to keep from sending the noise upstairs. Also a couple layers of heavy foam above the blower will absorb quite a bit of the noise going upward.

      The only cons for using melamine are you have to size the ducts properly and make sure you make cleanouts at the end of each run. It is near impossible to take apart that duct later in case of a plug, particularly if you use the preferred RooGlue melamine glue. The cost for the hardware bolts would be far more to sandwich sheet metal between melamine halves, so would not go that way.

      Making your ducting from Melamine creates rectangular ducting. The corners in rectangular duct reduce airflow. You need some different sizing with rectangular duct to provide the same airflow as we would get with round duct. This web page will give you the information you need to calculate sizing that will overcome that extra resistance:

    2. You seem to say that 4″ ducting, categorically, is not sufficient. Why? Sadly, this is not what I am saying. There is nothing wrong with 4″ or even smaller sized duct if it is ample to carry the volume of air needed for good collection at your machines and you have made sure that you open enough ducts to preclude plugging in your larger main duct runs.

      The problem right now is we still have old hobbyist and professional CFM requirements being intermingled. Both will get the same sawdust that we get with a broom, but only the larger air volumes will move enough air (provided you have effective hoods) to gather the fine stuff at its source. With typical hobbyist sized blowers, 4″ pipe will restrict the airflow down into the 450 CFM range. That is well below the 800 CFM that the engineers have found we need at our larger woodworking machines to collect that fine, most dangerous dust at its source. It also creates airflow well below what we need in our 6″ or larger main duct runs to prevent plugging unless you have multiple gates open at once. Most hobbyist dust collectors are too small to support more than one blast gate open at a time. I get around this problem by having a 6″ down drop to my blast gate that splits into two 4″ duct runs going to my belt sander, to my disk sander, and even to a small portable down draft table. One run goes to the regular machine dust port and the other uses flex hose held with a super magnet on top of the machine or table. I use 6″ to my table saws, planers, shaper, larger downdraft table, and big router table. I have a worthless reducer to 1.5″ going into my band saw that as soon as I finish up with my latest cyclone projects is going to turn into a 6″ duct. (I’ve been saying this for two years!)

    3. I’m having a serious case of sticker shock after trying to follow your advice and only use 6″ ducting and 6″ flex hose! OUCH! Where did you get good 4, 5, and 6″ flex hose? You are not alone in this sticker shock. I have 6″ clear, smooth walled flex hose from Amazon, Jet, , and Northern Tool. All was over triple what I paid for good quality smooth walled 4” flex hose, but that was not big enough for some of my needs. I found the best prices at Wynn Environmental (thanks Jack Diemer) and next best from Amazon. It was a bear to find on Amazon and often not in stock (search for “jet hose”). Grizzly, PSI and others also carry 6” flex in a few different grades as do most local hosing suppliers. The record cost I found was a heavy multiple layer rubber 6” flex hose that sold for $26 a linear foot, minimum 10’. Wynn Environmental carries affordable clear good quality 6” PVC hose and would recommend going with them in 25′ lengths. I now only use 6″ duct for the runs to all my machines then split after the blast gates for two pickup type machines. This is not cheapest, but saves having to balance everything, open extra ports when using small machines, and it hurts nothing to move more air than needed. For sound deadening I used insulated HVAC duct on the outlet side of my blower going to my filters thanks to a tip from Larry Adcock with WoodSucker. Most HVAC shops will let you buy a short piece of this insulated duct inexpensively.
    4. There are all kinds of different PVC pipes out there. What do you use and what do your recommend? I’ve had a commercial shop that used all 4″ spiral pipe installed by a commercial contractor. It was terrible and barely gave any dust collection at all. My next shop was 6″ mains going to 4″ and 5″ drops. It was better, mostly because it used a much bigger motor and impeller in the blower that powered it, but was still terrible. My current shop is in my garage and up until recently was also a mix of 6″ mains and smaller down drops. When I let my first prototype cyclone follow a friend home he also got that ducting, so I again started over. This time I used all 6″ Sewer and Drain 2729 PVC because it is inexpensive, has the least resistance, and the fittings slide tightly onto 6″ HVAC fittings.
    5. I see your shop is as messy as mine and see quite a bit of big pieces of PVC in the back. Is this what you recommend and used for your shop ducting? You have a lot of nerve! *Laughing* I recommend smooth interior walled ducting and smooth interior walled flex hose of at least 6″ in diameter to each of our larger machines. I’ve used spiral pipe, 24 gauge HVAC pipe, S&D PVC, and 6″ smooth interior walled flex hose with good success. The key is long straight runs, no sharp bends, no right angle fittings, on and on.. Don’t use anything but large 6″ smooth interior walled flex hose to your larger machines.
    6. I’m laying out a shop right now, have already used your AAF CFM requirements tables, worked through your ducting resistance calculator, and am convinced I do need all 6″ to each of my tools. I bought a bunch of HVAC parts and am copying forum advice you gave others. My question is I want to put my ducting buried under a concrete slab. What are your thoughts on doing this and can you share any hints? First, I would rather see ducting on the ceiling simply because things change and in floor ducting is not easy to modify, plus long sweeping turns on the ceiling are easy versus hard to form in the floor. Also, over time junk will go into those pipes and they will be a nightmare to clean or replace. If you have to or want to use floor ducting, I strongly recommend making concrete trenches instead of just buried under the slab.

      Steve Cater built his shop and put his 4″ ducting under the floor, but not in channels. When he hooked up his dust collector there was not enough airflow. He sent me a long email and again verified for the umpteenth time that anything less than 6″ is going to almost cut in half the airflow from your dust collector or cyclone. We went through all kinds gyrations to come up with a fix for him and were finally successful. It came down to having to use a monster motor driving a huge impeller to overcome that resistance and get enough airflow.

      You might want to look at and some of his discussion or even contact him before going too far. If you want some independent confirmation on the need and advantages of using only 6″ duct and 6″ hose, there are now dozens of hobbyists on most of the larger woodworking forums who I am sure would be happy to verify what a bid difference it made for them.

      Also, one of my friends locally put his ducting under a slab floor. Not too long ago his shop apron that was hanging on a hook near the open floor sweep tried to commit suicide. It almost made it, but his metal calipers got turned sideways at the second bend and jammed in so hard it locked in place. With no clean out, you would not believe what we had to do to get that apron unstuck. You need to use Y’s with one end going to a clean out for each buried run. This is another reason to go with the trenches.

      We have those kinds of trenches in our machine/woodshop at the university. They carry a copper airline, a water line, additional 110, 220 & 440 power, and the dust collection mains. We covered each trench with surplus computer room raised flooring tiles and on top of the whole shop floor we have interlocking horse stall mats. That makes for an incredibly comfortable shop that is easy on the legs and was not too hard on the pocket book.

      Finally, make sure you run two PVC 2″ pipes in the same runs with heavy poly-rope inside and a few T outlets that come out next to your machines for future goodies like more power, remote switches, on and on.

    7. I need your help with transitions. I made your cyclone and low cost blower for $167 from your web page using a 14″ Jet impeller and HF 5 hp motor. It moves an incredible amount of air! At your recommendation I purchased the 6” flex hose, bought and made some 6″ blast gates, and have a mess! Your blower design has a rectangular outlet that will not fit anything! A couple of my machines are European and use a dust port that won’t fit anything. All of my other machines use anything from 4″ down to 1 1/2″ dust ports. My expensive new commercial blast gates won’t fit my PVC duct. How do I make all these transitions? Good for you on that construction! My twin to yours measures out at a real 1800+ CFM before connecting cyclone, ducting, or filters. You are not alone with your connection problems. Many of us end up with confusion and problems in trying to hook up our dust collection systems. Machine outlets don’t match our sized duct or flex hose. We use a combination of metal, flex and duct that will not fit our blast gates, etc.

      In terms of the transition to the blower, you can go to my section above and see how to build a sheet metal transition that will go from either round or square to either round or square. That approach works and is kind of fun, but very labor intensive. It also is unforgiving if you are not real careful in your measurements and cutting.

      Alternatively, what I’ve been doing lately is measuring both the size and perimeter of the outlet then making a run to my local orange box store (Home Deport or Lowe’s for me). There I go through the HVAC transitions until I find a rectangular or circular one that is either right on or just a little bigger that mates on the other side with a 6″ round fitting. Most of these are held together with either rivets or metal stamps that kind of push a little circle through adjacent pieces then mushroom the top a little. I drill out those connections, then use a piece of angle iron and hammer to square up the corners with the top and bottom set at the width of the outlet I want it to mate with. Slot each corner and bend the top and bottom at 90 degrees to be screwed onto the blower MDF. The sides I leave straight and use aluminum tape to hold to the metal sides of the blower.

      Mating the PVC together is mostly a matter of staying with the same series. I only use the 6″ (remember 4″ and 5″ are too small for our larger machines!!) S&D 2729 series and all from the same supplier. Different suppliers make pipe of different thickness so not all will fit together. The supplier I use is an industrial irrigation and plumbing supply firm and their product has an ID that is dead on at 6″.

      The reason I only use that type of pipe is that it also takes care of the problem of mating with standard HVAC ducts and transitions. You have to work at it hard, but the 6″ HVAC fittings will just fit into that duct. They are tight enough that they don’t fall apart. I seal them just in case with the aluminum tape. Also, after making sure all fits and before my final assembly into the PVC, I pull out my flux and solder the HVAC transition up so there are no air leaks.

      If the blast gates you made don’t fit, shame on you! If the gates you bought are normal, they will be too small! Shrinking PVC is a major pain that takes a mandrel, special heating arrangement, and big clamp similar to a piston ring compressor. Instead, as McGiver would do, whip out your Swiss Army knife and duct tape. Put a couple of ½” wide turns on the inside of the flange. These first couple of turns create a taper making for a better fit. Follow that with enough turns so you get a good tight fit with your blast gate. I cut the end off a metal screw, drill a hole through the PVC and blast gate flange, and keep all held together with that screw. If your gate gets moved around or used a lot, then use two or three screws done the same way.

      Mating your flex hose to PVC can be a real pain. The 6″ flex hose I use is just a touch larger than 6″ ID and will stretch a tiny bit. My PVC is about 6 1/4″ in outside diameter. They don’t fit! But, there is a fix. I take that PVC to my band saw with the thin kerf 3/32″ blade. I then cut 2″ deep in the end right down the center of the pipe, turn the pipe 60 degrees cut 2″ deep again, then turn the pipe 60 degrees more and make a final 2″ deep cut. (If you use a thick kerf blade only make two cuts!) This creates a pipe with six (or four) cuts that with a little squeezing becomes tapered losing just enough diameter to fit tightly into my flex hose. You can use a screw type band clamp and PVC glue to seal and make stronger, but I find that is not at all needed. The hose slips on enough to make a good seal.

      Mating your flex hose to metal pipes can also be a real pain because they keep falling off. I beat this with a simple but nice solution building a simple thread into my pipes that the duct can screw onto. I drill a small hole near the front of the metal flange and one toward the end. That hole is sized to just fit a single strand of 12 gauge copper wire. I put the wire through the hole then wind tightly around the metal flange at about the same spacing as the coils in my flex hose. With a little solder that copper wire is there for life! Trim off the tags inside the flange and sand smooth. Now the flex hose just screws on. Sometimes, depending upon the hose I may need to use thicker wire, but in most cases the result is plenty tight enough that it does not even need a clamp to make a nice non-leaking seal! This also works well on my tapered PVC, but use super glue instead of solder to hold the wire in place.

      Mating my pipes to my European machines is a whole different technique. Although heating PVC gives off very dangerous fumes that you need to protect yourself against, you can do magic with a heat gun or two and PVC. I documented my techniques and show some extreme examples of how much you can do on my How to Bend and Form PVC page. I was able in a few minutes to make some incredible joints that fit nice and snug on all those weird sized pipes.

      Now with all that said, is this the way to go? Nope. Instead go to a real ducting supplier and buy their top quality laser welded standard 6″ flanges that include a seal, and replace those often way too small inlets on all your larger machines.

      That same heat gun technique will let you make most of your long bends in your PVC without using any joints or fittings at all. You have to have a couple of heat guns to get a large enough area hot at once, but the result is nothing short of amazing.

      Finally, reducers for me are almost all 6″ runs that start with a blast gate then come down to a wye with upper and lower collection hoses. One leg of the wye will connect to my machine dust port and the other goes to a movable hood , often with a super magnet to hold it in place. Woodcraft, LeeValley, Rockler, Grizzly, etc. all carry fittings, but I mostly either use HVAC or make my own. Make sure you only get fittings with smooth joints and tapers, as tight corners and blockages kill airflow and performance.

B.     Disclaimer

The drawings, procedures and words shared on these pages are for information only. Your actions are your responsibility – VERIFY and CHECK information out before proceeding, and don’t attempt anything without the required skills. Although I’ve taken every care to ensure what I have done and presented is safe, dust collection equipment uses electrical components and blowers that when improperly built, used, or maintained may cause serious injury or even death, so USE THIS INFORMATION AT YOUR OWN RISK! At the same time, unless you as a woodworker provide appropriate protections for the fine wood dust you make, you put your health, the health of those close to you, and even the health of your pets at risk. Long term exposure to fine wood dust eventually harms most woodworkers. Please take the time to protect yourself and those close to you. HIRE A PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER to design, specify, test, and certify performance of any dust collection system if you have a commercial or an industrial application, allergies, other medical problems, people working for you, a large shop, work with hazardous materials, or are subject to regulatory oversight. Neither I (Bill Pentz) nor any other references or links on these pages will accept any liability for any damages or injury caused to people or property from the using of this information or from any associated links. No claims are expressed or implied as to the safety, usefulness, or accuracy of this information.


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